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Before start the how to we need to know what’s Kubernetes in fact. So, Kubernetes is a FOSS platform or framework created by Google to automate deployments, staling and operating using containers (like a docker swarm), but with kubernetes one of the major advantage is that we can perform actions that can be respond to customer demand quickly and then it’s really amazing.

Starting bootstrapping clusters with kubeadmon. So, I chose the Linux distribuiton ubuntu server mininal 16.04 LTS because Ubuntu have an awesome lifecycle and this specific version is extremely tiny and clean, a good option to create a secure environment with a mininal portion of tools.

First, we need avoid a little issue that should be apear during the deployment, it’s related to swap memory, then to avoid this for now we’ll disable it on our OS, using swapff -a you can disable swap in order for the kubelet to work properly, after that we need verify the MAC address and product_uuid and take a look certifying if it are unique for every node, for that you can perform the command sudo cat /sys/class/dmi/id/product_uuid

Check required ports

Master node(s) - kube-master:

Port Range Purpose
6443* Kubernetes API server
2379-2380 Kubernetes API server
10250 Kubelet API
10251 kube-scheduler
10252 kube-controller-manager
10255 Read-only Kubelet API (Heapster)

Worker node(s) - kube-node01:,kube-node02:

Port Range Purpose
10250 Kubelet API
30000-32767 Default port range for NodePort Services. Typically, these ports would need to be exposed to external load-balancers, or other external consumers of the application itself.
10255 Read-only Kubelet API (Heapster)
  1. Configuring bridge netfilter call Set /proc/sys/net/bridge/bridge-nf-call-iptables to 1 by running sysctl net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1 to pass bridged IPv4 traffic to iptables’ chains.
    sysctl net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1

    This is a requirement for CNI plugins to work, for more information please see here.

  2. Installing ebtables ethtool
    apt install ebtables ethtool -y 

6 . Installing Docker

apt update
apt install -y
  1. Installing kubeadm, kubelet and kubectl
    • kubeadm: the command to bootstrap the cluster.
    • kubelet: the component that runs on all of the machines in your cluster and does things like starting pods and containers.
    • kubectl: the command line util to talk to your cluster.
  • Install on master AND nodes:
    apt-get update && apt-get install -y apt-transport-https
    curl -s | apt-key add -
    cat <<EOF >/etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list
    deb kubernetes-xenial main
    apt-get update
    apt-get install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl
    systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet
    1. Avoiding swap errors on master node
      echo 'Environment="KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS=--fail-swap-on=false"' >> /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf
      systemctl daemon-reload
      kubeadm reset

      Using kubeadm to Create a Cluster =====================================

    2. Initializing your master
      kubeadm init
To start using your cluster, you need to run (as a regular user):
mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo echo " kube-master" >> /etc/hosts
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.

kubectl apply -f
kubectl describe node kube-master
  1. Initializing your nodes
    sudo echo " kube-nodeX" >> /etc/hosts
    echo 'Environment="KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS=--fail-swap-on=false"' >> /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf
    systemctl daemon-reload
    kubeadm reset
    kubeadm join --token <token> <master-ip>:<master-port> --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:<hash>
  2. Checking all nodes on your master
    kubectl get nodes
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Richardson Lima



Richardson Lima

Infra DevOps - A brain dump related to Infrastructure as a code, DevOps and Cloud.

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